Colonel George Douglas, 1st Earl of Dumbarton's Regiment of Foot
The Royal Regiment of Foot
1660 to 1685
The above quote makes it clear that at least one occasion, and perhaps more, soldiers from England were recruited to serve in the Regiment. There was some bias against service in the Regiment in parts of Scotland and England because it was considered a French Regiment and the officers were, for the most part, Catholics.
At the Time of the Restoration, a Company of Foot was authorized one Captain, one Lieutenant, one Ensign, three Sergeants, three Corporals, 2 Drummers and 100 ”Private Centinells”. Ideally, the company would have been comprised of one third pikemen and two-thirds musketeers.
On 16 July, 1685, James II decreed that the company organizations would change to one Captain, the Lieutenant position to be abolished as vacated, one Ensign, 2 Sergeants, three Corporals, one Drummer and 60 “Private Centinells.” It is doubtful that either company organization was ever at full strength.
Chronology of the Regiment to 1688
May 1620 Sir Andrew Gray raises a regiment of 1500 men in Scotland to serve under Frederick V, The Elector Palatinate and King of Bohemia
September 1620 Regiment goes into service under the Margrave of Ansbach against the Duke of Bavaria. Captain Hepburn’s Company is the Lifeguard of Frederick V.
8 November 1620 Defeat of Frederick V at the Battle of White Mountain. Gray’s Regiment goes into service under the Graf Von Mansfeld in the Upper Palatinate.
25 April 1622 Battle of Weisloch. Mansfeld defeats Tilly’s Imperialist Army
August 1622 Mansfeld defeats Spanish at Fleurs
1622-23 Service in Holland
1622 Siege of Bergen Op Zoop
The Battle of White Mountain
7 April 1623 Sir John Hepburn, a Captain in Grays Regiment takes The Regiment into Swedish service. The regiment consists of 8 companies with 72 musketeers, 54 pike and one piper in each company
1625 Gustavus II Adolphus appoints Sir John Hepburn as Regimental Commander
28 May -14 July 1628 Siege of Stralsund
Gustavus II Adolphus, King of Sweden, Finland and Livonia
August-September 1630 Capture and defense of Rugenvald castle. Relieved and reinforced by Hepburn’s Regiment.
July 1630-Mar 1631 Seige of Coberg. MacKay’s and Hepburn’s Regiments defend against 8,000 Imperial soldiers attempting to lift seige at Schievelbein.
24 December 1630 Seige of Greifenhagen
1631 Seige of Demmin
24 March 1631 Scots Brigade formed under the command of Sir John Hepburn and consisting of Hepburn’s Regiment, MacKay’s Regiment, Stargate’s Regiment and Lumsen’s Regiment
1631 Storming of Frankfurt On Oder. Hepburn wounded in the assault while carrying 20 pound petard to the cirty gates. Monro leads the Brigade into the city and garrison is overrun.
8 April- 18 April 1631 Seige of Landsberg. Outworks taken by MacKay’s and Hepburn’s Regiments. Defeated Imperial garrison of 6,000 granted the honors of war and depart city with “2,00 female camp followers“
July 1631 Seige of Werben
7 September 1631 Battle of Breitenfeld. Scots Brigade in the reserve and are used to refuse the Swedish flank and persue the fleeing Imperial army
1631 Defense of Ochsenfurt by Scots Brigade.
20 November 1631 Siege of Oppenheim. City captured by 200 Scots before main assault, Scots capture first Spanish colors take by Swedish Army
December 1631 Surrender of Mainz
Jan- 5 March 1632 Garrison of Mainz
March 1632 Seige of Donauworth
March 1632 Assualt river crossing of the Lech River at Rain
April 1632 Seige of Oberndorf
April 1632 Seige of Ingoldstadt
April 1632 Seige of Landshut
May-June 1632 Occupation of Munich and garrison duty Hepburn appointed Governor of Landshut and Munich
July- August 1632 Occupation of Nurenberg and skirmishing with entrenched Imperial forces
3 September 1632 Storming of Alte Fest
1632 Storming of Furth
"In such dress the 800 Irish lately in Stettin walk about”
August 1632 Sir John Hepburn leaves Swedish Service
September 1632 Sir Robert Monro takes command of the Scots Brigade
16 November 1632 Gustavus II Adolphus killed at Lutzen
26 January 1633 Louis XIII Commissions Sir John Hepburn to raise a regiment in Scotland
4 April 1633 Colonel Sir John Hepburn under a warrant from the Privy Council of Scotland, given under King Charles I's authority at Whitehall on 28th March raises a regiment of 1,200 men in Edinburgh for service in France. 2,000 men are recruited and enter French service. Scottish companies in French service since 1589 are consolidated with Hepburn’s Regiment.
July 1634 La Mothe
November 1634 Heidelburg
1634 Relief of the besieged remnants of the Green Brigade at Landau. The last of the 36 original pipers in MacKay’s Regiment welcomes Colonel Sir John Hepburn into the city. The Green Brigade goes into French Service under command of
Sir John Hepburn.
Scots on the March
1635 Lorraine Colonel Sir John Hepburn commands 8,000 man force that includes Le Regiment De Hebron
1635 Louis XIII appoints Sir John Hepburn as a Marshall of France
21 July 1636 Colonel Sir John Hepburn dies at the siege of Saverne near Strasbourg
November-December 1636 360 Recruits for the Regiment from Scotland
allowed by Charles I
1636-37 Colonel George Hepburn commands the Regiment until his death at Chatillon
1637 Strength of Le Regiment De Hebron described as being 48 companies of 150 pike and musket and one piper for each company, totaling 8,316 men
December 1637 Regiment De Douglas under command of Colonel Lord James Douglas
1638 Spanish Netherlands
1638 St. Omers
1639 France in Picardy
1643-44 Garrison of Turin
1644-48 Spanish Netherlands
21 October 1647 Colonel Lord James Douglas dies at the Siege of Douai
1645 Colonel Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus and Ormond Commands the Regiment
24 0ctober 1648 Peace of Westphalia
31 December 1648 Charles I Executed
1648-54 French Civil War (Le Fronde)
1652 St Antoine
1652 Vinneneuve St George
1652 Bar-De Luc
1653 Chateau Portieu
1 January 1651 Charles II crowned King of Scotland
1654 Coronation of Louis XIV
1656 Colonel Lord George Douglas Commands the Regiment
1658 Saint Venant
1658 Dunkirk Dunes
1662 3 new companies of 100 men each recruited in Scotland. Regiment consists of 23 companies of 100 soldiers each
1659 Merging of Regiment de Rutherford into the Regiment de Douglas increases size of the regiment to 2,000 men.
1660 Regiment garrisons Avennes. Regiment consists of eight companies, each company with one third pike and two thirds shot.
January 26 1661 Charles II’s Royal Warrant establishes a standing army
1661-1662 English Service as Douglas’ Regiment of Foot.
1662- 1664 French Service
1664- 1667 Second Anglo-Dutch War in England at Chatham (increased 8 to 12 companies)
1667 Return to French Service now in a uniform of red coats with white cuffs and a strength of 1,500 men.
1667-1668 The War of Devolution
1667-72 Garrison at Lille
1671 Regiment receives 6,000 Scottish recruits to form 16 new companies of 375 men each.
1672 British Brigade established under nominal command of the Duke of Monmouth and the Regiment represents 2/3 of the brigade manpower with 3,432 men in 33 companies
1672-74 Franco-Dutch War in the Netherlands
1674-78 Franco-Austrian War in Rhineland
1675 Trier (Marshall Turenne killed and only 200 men remaining in
Regiment following the siege)
1675 Colonel Lord George Douglas created 1st Earl of Dumbarton and Regiment becomes the Regiment De Dumbarton
1676 Regiment returns to Scotland to reconstitute following the siege at Dachstein, returning to French service in time for the battle of Phillipsburg.
1677 The Earl of Dumbarton promoted to Marechaux De Camp (Lieutenant General) in the French Army
1678 Enters English Service and garrisons Hertfordshire
1679-1680 Ireland all 21 companies
1678 Grenadier Company Formed
1680-84 Tangier 16 companies
1684 Return from Tangier awarded title of “The Royal Regiment of Foot” and posted at Rochester
6 February 1685 Charles II dies.
23 April 1685 Coronation of James II.
May- June 1685 The Earl of Dumbarton posted to Scotland as Commander In Chief
21 June – 18 July 1685 Monmouth’s Rebellion
16 June 1685 Battle of Sedgemoor 5 companies
1686 Second Battalion Formed
1st Battalion 11 Companies 50 men each
2nd Battalion 10 Companies 50 men each
March 1686 September 1688 Second Battalion posted to Scotland
September 1688 Entire Regiment garrisons Hertford
December 1688 Regiment supports King James II
January 1688 The Earl of Dumbarton follows King James II into exile in France.
January 1688 Regiment renamed Schomburg’s Regiment
March 1689 Regiment refuses command of a foreigner and mutinies At Ipswich prior to embarkation for France
Dumbartons drums they sound sae bonnie,
And they remind me o my Johnnie,
Such fond delight does fall upon me,
When Johnnie kneels and kisses me.
My love he is a handsome laddie,
And though he is Dumbartons caddie,
Some day Ill be a Captains lady,
When Johnnie tends his vow tae me.
Across the fields of bounding heather,
Dumbarton sounds the hour o pleasure,
The joy I know will know no measure,
When Johnnie kneels and kisses me.
Tis he alone that can delight me,
His roving eyes they do invite me,
And when his tender arms enfold me,
The blackest night does turn and flee
Brander, A.M., The Royal Scots ( London, 1976)
Childs, John, The Army of Charles II ( London, 1976)
Dalton, Charles, The Scots Army, 1661-1688 ( London, 1909)
Ede-Borrett, S., The Army of James II, Uniforms and Organization (UK 2001)
Glozier, Matthew, Scottish Soldiers in France in the reign of the Sun King ( Leiden, 2004)
Grant, James, The Scottish Soldier of Fortune, ( London, 1890)
Malestein, Arthur J., The Restoration Army: Its Mission, Men, and Equipment
Reid, Stuart, Last Scots Army 1661-1714 ( UK, 2003)
Smithers, A.J., The Tangier Campaign, The Birth of the British Army ( UK, 2003)
Tincey, John, Armies of the Sedgemoor Campaign ( UK, 1998)
Tincey, John, The British Army, 1660-1704 ( UK, 1994)
Tincey, John, Monmouth’s Drill Book ( UK,1968)
Turner, James, Pallas Armata: Military essayes of the ancient Grecian, Roman, and modern art of war. Written in the years 1670 and 1671 (NY, 1968)
Weaver, Lawrence, The Story of the Royal Scots ( UK, 1915)
Weygand, Max, Turenne, Marshal of France ( London, 1930)
Williams, Noel Saint John Williams, Redcoats and Courtesans: The Birth of the British Army, 1660-1690 ( London, 1994)
Additional Recommended Reading
Ashley, Maurice, George Monck (NJ, 1977)
Chandler, David, Sedgemoor 1685 ( UK, 1999)
Coote, Stephen, Royal Survivor, The Life of Charles II ( UK, 1999)
Coote, Stephen, Samuel, Peyps, A Life ( UK, 2000)
Du Puy, Trevor, The Military Life of Gustavus Adolphus, (NY, 1969)
Kitson, Frank, Prince Rupert, Admiral and General at Sea ( London , 1999)
Jamison, Ted, George Monck and the Restoration: Victor Without Bloodshed ( Texas, 1975)
Keeble, N.H., The Restoration, England in the 1660s ( UK, 2002)
Miller, John, After the Civil Wars, English Politics and Government in the Reign of Charles II ( Essex, 2000)
Miller, John, James II, A Study in Kingship ( London, 1999)
Monro, Robert, His Expedition with the Worthy Scots Regiment called MacKeys ( London, 1637)
Wedgewood, C.V., The Thirty Years War, ( London, 1938)
“It has been reported and is probable that Lord Dumbarton’s Regiment, which was their nursery for men of honor, did drawn 55,000 recruits from Scotland, whereof few returned with whole bones and less with estates”
John Crookshanks, 1713