A Brief Military History of the Colony of Maryland 1634-1707
Maryland required a military organization from its inception in order to meet potential threats both external from Native Americans, France, Spain and fellow colonists from Virginia and internal threats to public order. The militia served as part time army as well as a police force. The militia was comprised of male “free men” between the ages of 16 and 60. Expeditions, or relatively small scale, short duration, offensive operations were drawn from militia, with the manpower requirements and, in some cases, the armaments, being met either voluntarily or involuntarily (“pressed”). Some of these expeditions drew from the militia of several counties and in the following list of units, I have indicated that when the available records have indicated that had occurred. Ranger organizations, of anywhere from three to as many as thirty men, were raised and funded on an annual basis, depending on the perceived threat. They were a mounted reconnaissance asset for the colony, garrisoning forts and or patrolling the western borders of the colony to provide early warning of Native American attack. The assumption seems to have been that sufficient early warning would be provided by the rangers to allow the militia to muster and respond to the threat. Maryland unlike Virginia and New York, never had “regular” units present in the colony. The definition of Regular Regiments and the Regular Independent Companies of the time was to have been authorized by the Crown, funded by Parliament and on the Official Army List. There is one unique company raised by CPT Gabriel Towson in Maryland and sent to Albany, NY to reinforce the city in King William’s War from 1690 to 1697. This unit perhaps comes the closest to meeting the definition of what would later in the 18th century be called a “provincial” unit, but still does not meet the definition of a “regular” unit.
The following chronology is an effort to gather in one place all that remains of a fragmentary record of military actions in Maryland from the establishment of the colony to the Union of the Crowns.
The Charter for the Colony of Maryland was granted in 1631 to Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore of Longford County, in the Irish Peerage. He died in 1632 and his son Cecil, rose to the Title and sent his two younger brothers, Leonard and George, along with 200 gentlemen adventurers and their families to settle a colony envisioned to be a place of refuge for Catholics. The colony was established on 3 March 1634. The colony was established as a “palatine,” giving the Proprietor a considerable amount of control over the colony and those in it including, an oath of loyalty, dispensing justice and land.
Prior to the arrival of the Calverts and their colonists, Virginians under William Claiborne had established a trading post on Kent Island in 1631, not far from where Calvert had established his settlement. Claiborne was actively involved in the fur trade with the Susquehannock tribe and refused to recognize Calvert’s claim to the land where he had established his settlement. Claiborne had received permission to trade with the Dutch to the north as well as native Americans from the Governor of Virginia but not to establish any settlements and in 1633 Claiborne’s settlement was judged to be in the jurisdiction of Calvert’s colony by the King’s Star Chamber, the highest court of the time in England. The colony of Virginia objected and Claiborne was assured of his right to remain at Kent Island by the Crown.
The colony of Maryland was established on 3 March 1634 on land previously occupied by the Piscataway tribe, who did not have friendly relations with the Susquehannocks. Initially relations with local tribes had been friendly but by July the demeanor of the Native Americans had changed and this was attributed to Claiborne’s influence. The settlers at St Mary’s built a fort in preparation for an attack that never materialized. By September Lord Baltimore directed his brother to arrest Claiborne and occupy his property on Kent Island. Calvert’s men seized one of Claiborne’s vessels and two armed ships were sent to Kent Island to attack Claiborne’s settlement. Claiborne attacked the two vessels on 23 April 1635, the first known sea battle on the Chesapeake. With Claiborne absent and their ships destroyed in the sea action, the settlement on Kent Island surrendered to Calvert’s authority and Claiborne began his long legal battle to regain his land and control of the settlement on Kent Island.
Lord Baltimore’s plan for land distribution in the colony was that manors would be established with tenants farming the land. The amount of land granted for manors was based on the number of tenants brought to Maryland. This was an essentially a medieval English land distribution plan and failed to consider new ideas about land ownership evolving in Britain. The settlement of St Mary’s became a county by 1637. That same year, Lord Baltimore reorganized the colony’s government, with Governor Calvert supported by three councilors and a single legislative body. Kent Island was ‘commanded” by Captain Robert Evelyn beginning in December 1637 and, by 1638, was called “Kent Hundred” in the County of St Mary’s.
On 25 January 1638, the first colonial assembly met at St Mary’s City comprised of “freemen” or those males between the ages of 16 and 60 who were not indentured servants. The first assembly was small enough to be conducted as a plebiscite but all others would be representative assemblies. The assembly agreed to the construction of Fort Inigoe across the river from St Mary’s City. Apparently unrest on Kent Island, allegedly involving the freeing of detained prisoners and conspiring with Susquehannocks, required a resolution at this first assembly that called for the imposition of martial law and sending an armed expedition under the command of Governor Calvert and Captain Cornwallis to subdue the island. There is no record of the outcome of this expedition. William Brainthwayte replaced Evelyn in late 1638 as Captain and commander of Kent Island only to be replaced by Giles Brent in February of 1639.
In May of 1639 Giles Brent was appointed “Captain of the Military Band” of the colony and was instructed to train all the colonists able to bear arms, council excluded, in “the art and discipline of war on holy days and any other time there should be need.” He or one of his subordinates was also required to insure each home had the required arms and ammunition, one serviceable gun, a shot bag, one pound of powder, four pounds of shot, a sword and a belt per man, with a fine of 30 pounds of tobacco to be exacted as punishment for noncompliance. The militia would consist of the free men of the colony and were organized into military units based on the “hundred”, a subset of a county, in which the men resided. Sergeants were compensated for instructing the men in military drill. In the same month of May an expedition of 30 men with “necessary officers” and supplies were to be pressed (or forced into military service) and sent to Kent Island to conduct operations against the Susquehannocks. There is no record of actions by this expedition. William Brianthwayte replaced Giles Brent as Captain and commander of Kent Island in August of 1639.
In July of 1641 the Governor instructed the residents of Kent Island to shoot on sight any Native Americans. It was believed that the natives threatening Kent Island were a group located vicinity Chestertown and had upwards of sixty fighting men armed with muskets while Kent Island could muster no more than perhaps twenty five men. In March of 1642 Governor Calvert summoned an assembly to discuss the hostility of Native Americans and how to respond. Of the 78 free men of the colony 30 were represented by six proxy holders. All the inhabitants of Kent Island were represented by two men who held all their proxies. In June of 1642, the Governor ordered that Native Americans could not be sold guns or ammunition, and that arms be provided for all “able to bear arms.” All available men were directed to be armed when away from home and that firing a weapon was to be an alarm. In the same month, orders were sent to Captain Robert Evelyn to levy, train and muster the settlers near Piscataway. A fort near the Patuxent was put under the command of Henry Bishop in August and orders were given that the alarm signal was to be three sequential discharges from a firearm that when heard was to be followed by the evacuation of women and children to local forts and strong houses. Once the evacuation had occurred, the militia were to “keep guard.” The forts were St Inigoes Fort, Thomas Sterman’s House in St Michael’s Hundred, Thomas Weston’s House in St George’s Hundred and Patuxent Fort.
In September the Susquehannock, Wicomico and Nanticoke tribes were declared “enemies to the province.” The colonial assembly raised an expedition to attack the Susquehannock by enlisting every third man out of each hundred armed, provisioned for two months and transported by their hundred with the cost divided between the residents of the hundred. Each member of the expedition was to be provided by the county, if he did not already have it, “one fixed gunne, 2 pounds of powder, 8 pounds pistol or bullet shot, 1 sword and 2 months provisions,” Uniquely, compensation for disability of those sent on the expedition was called for by the assembly. Captain Brainthwaite, the commander of the expedition, took sixteen men to Kent Island where Captain Brent refused to force men to serve on the expedition, thereby preventing the expedition to continue due to lack of manpower. On 16 December 1642 Giles Brent was commissioned by Governor Calvert to be “Commander of our Isle and County of Kent,” including three commissioners allowing for a separate county court. In January of 1643 a peace treaty was negotiated with the Nanticokes but a state of war continued to exist between Maryland and the Susquehannock and Wicomico. Governor Calvert left the colony in April of 1643 leaving Giles Brent as governor in his absence.
Brent and Calvert both attempted to put together expeditions against their Native American enemies but were unable to convince the colony’s council or assembly to raise the necessary men and supplies. Virginia was unwilling to join with Maryland in joint expeditions as well. The best that could be achieved was a ten man expedition to garrison Palmers Island at the mouth of the Susquehanna River to observe the enemy. In the summer of 1643, Captain Cornwallis led an expedition up the Susquehanna River to a Susquehannock village but was driven off, failing to end the continual raids against the settlements of the colony.
The Great Civil War that was already two years old in the British Isles reached Maryland in January of 1644. Captain Richard Ingle was no stranger to Maryland as he had been involved for several years in the annual tobacco fleet which brought good from England to Maryland and Virginia and took back the annual tobacco crop to England. His Parliamentarian sympathies were known as well. His remarks about King Charles resulted in his imprisonment and the seizure of his ship, the Reformation. Both were temporary and it seemed that economic necessity both the ship captains and the colonies overrode political loyalties, for the moment.
Leonard Calvert returned to Maryland in September of 1644 and by the end of the month went to Virginia leaving William Brianthwaite to serve as deputy governor of the colony. By October William Ingle was on his way back to Maryland with a letter of marque allowing him to seize ‘enemy’ ships from Parliament in hand. In December of 1644, William Claiborne made a failed attempt to raise the people of Kent Island. In January of 1645 Ingle sailed into St Mary’s and found a Dutch vessel, The Looking Glass, conducting a brisk trade with the Marylanders. Ingle departed for Virginia to find additional men to attack Maryland. Returning in February, Ingle attacked the Looking Glass, causing her to lower her colors and surrender. Ingle then proceeded to hunt down the Catholic colonial leaders and to loot the homes of the wealthy. Protestant settlers either supported Ingle or remained neutral and the outnumbered Catholics supported Calvert and his government. Calvert and his men built and garrisoned St Thomas Fort and Ingles men built a fort around Calvert’s abandoned house. By April Ingle had departed St. Mary’s for England with The Looking Glass as his prize only to be disappointed by the refusal of the Parliamentarian Admiralty Courts to recognize the legitimacy of his actions in taking her. Those who stayed back in Maryland asserted their control of the colony, taking St Thomas Fort by late in the summer of 1645. Leonard Calvert was not taken but fled to Virginia. With no legal basis for its existence, the government Ingle left behind was unable to perform only the most rudimentary functions of government. Captain Edward Hill went to St Mary’s City in July of 1646 to retrieve men who had fled from Virginia and found himself governor of the colony until December of that year.
Hill was operating under Leonard Calvert’s orders and found himself only able to control events in St Mary’s County, with Kent County refusing to recognize Hill’s or Calvert’s authority. By late December Calvert returned to Maryland with a company of men raised in Virginia comprised of Virginians, Maryland refugees and assumed control with little or no resistance.
William Claiborne returned to Kent Island in December of 1646 and attempted unsuccessfully to convince the local populace to march on St. Mary’s City. Calvert and his men regained control of Kent County in April of 1647. Calvert died in June and was replaced by Thomas Greene in June of 1647. In July of 1647 COL John Price was ordered to assemble a company of thirty to forty men and attack the Nanticoke and Wicomick villages. There is no record of the results of this expedition. Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore and Leonard’s brother replaced Thomas Green with William Stone, a Virginian and the first Protestant Governor of the colony in August 1648. Recent events had shrunk the population of Maryland and Stone brought with him five hundred puritan settlers who had been made unwelcome in Virginia who established the settlement of Providence, in current Ann Arundel County.
The first colonial assembly under Governor Stone was presented with an Act Concerning Religion which they modified and adopted as the law in Maryland. The Act called for religious toleration and forbade insulting language about religion, a first in British Law. The Act only applied to Christians. Thomas Greene was appointed Deputy Governor under Governor Stone.
On 30 January 1649 Charles I was executed and in November of that year Greene declared, on behalf of the Colony of Maryland, Charles II as the rightful King, much to the dismay of the new Puritan immigrants and many of the other Protestant settlers. Governor Stone retracted the proclamation but Parliament in the face of opposition in Virginia as well as Maryland, sent two commissioners, Richard Bennett and William Claiborne from England to “reduce all the plantations within the Chesapeake Bay to their due obedience to the parliament of the commonwealth of England.” The Commissioners went to Virginia first to establish Parliamentary control first, and arrived in Maryland in March 1652. Governor Stone was initially displaced but by June was returned to the position of Governor with a council appointed by the Commissioners. In July the first Peace Treaty with the Susquehannocks was signed in November 1652. With the Susquehannocks pacified, CPT William Fuller’s was ordered to conduct an expedition against the Nanticokes and Wicomicoes of the Eastern Shore but the expedition was abandoned eastern shore in part due to both the lateness of the season and the unwillingness of the settlers at Providence to contribute men to the expedition.
The Parliamentarian Commissioners, appointed by a Parliament dismissed by Cromwell in December 1653, were in Virginia when Governor Stone, in May, proclaimed Cromwell Lord Protector of England and the colony of Maryland. They returned to Maryland and replaced Governor Stone with a council to rule Maryland in July. In January 1655 after Lord Baltimore attacked him for surrendering to the Commissioners, Governor Stone began to organize an armed force in St Mary’s County of approximately 130 men. Operating under orders from Governor Stone, CPT Josias Fendall leading a force of 20 men was involved in a raid to secure arms, ammunition and the colony records in Patuxent.
Governor Stone set out to reduce Providence in the 20 March 1655. Part of his force marched up the bay and part went by sea to the Severn River and arrived at the outer harbor of Providence by 24 March. Governor Stone landed his force, under fire from the ship Golden Lyon, and formed up his forces under the black and yellow colors of the Baltimore coat of arms. CPT Fuller with a force of approximately 170 men attempted to meet Stone’s force on the rear or flank. Hoping to resolve the situation with a parley, CPT Fuller ordered his men to not fire. Fuller raised the Commonwealth Colors and Stone’s men opened fire, killing one man. One volley and a follow on charge routed Stone’s army. The Proprietary force suffered seventeen men killed and thirty two wounded and CPT Fuller lost had three men killed and several wounded. This was the only battle of the Great Civil War fought in North America. Following the battle, ten of the leaders of the Proprietary army were condemned to death, with four executed and the rest released as a result of the request from the inhabitants of Providence. The property of those who had opposed CPT Fuller were plundered and all were subject to fines. The Puritans were in control of the colony until 10 July 1656 when Josias Fendall was made governor of Maryland by Lord Baltimore, who’s claim to the colony was in dispute in England. CPT Fuller and others arrested Fendall until he swore “not to disturb the present government,” until a final decision came from England. By September 1656, the English Protectorate Board of Trade decided entirely on Lord Baltimore’s behalf and Fendall was confirmed as Governor. On 7 November Lord Baltimore’s brother, Cecil was confirmed as secretary of the colony. In 1657 Josias Fendall left the colony for England leaving Luke Barber, the former physician of Cromwell as the acting governor in his absence. The colony remained divided with separate governments in Providence and St Mary’s until April 1658, when Lord Baltimore assumed control of the entire colony. In March 1660 Fendall led an abortive attempt to take control of the Colony which failed with the Restoration of Charles II on 29 May 1660. Lord Baltimore made Phillip Calvert the Governor of Maryland in June 1660. In 1661 a militia act was passed by the assembly that called for enlistment in the militia on an as needed basis only with those enlisted required to provide their own weapons and fines or imprisonment for failure to do so. In this same year Maryland assisted the Susquehannocks in their war with the Seneca by providing a company of 50 men to help defend their fort. In May 1661, CPT John Odber was instructed by the assembly to “choose some fit place either within or without the forte which you are to fortify for your own security,” as well as to “cause some spurs or flankers to be laid out for defense of the Indian fort, whom you are upon all occasions to assist against the assaults of their enemies.” Additionally, CPT Odber’s Company was to pay particular attention to Susquehannock interaction with the Dutch. His Company was raised by men levied or pressed with St Mary’s County providing 11, Calvert providing 15, Charles providing 7, Anne Arundel providing 11 and Kent providing 3. By November it became apparent that the Susquehannocks were unwilling to provide the agreed assistance to CPT Odber’s Company, that being provisions and assistance in constructing fortifications. The Company departed that same month. In 1662 Charles Calvert assumed the Governorship of Maryland
By 1664 the assembly voted to tax inhabitants of the colony to allow for purchase of arms and ammunition for defense of the colony with those arms to be stored at county magazines. Charles Calvert the governor provided 250 muskets as well as swords and belts for the county arsenals that same year. Weapons could be pressed, or confiscated from owners, into county or colony service if required in an emergency. The system of the colony providing arms and ammunition to the colonial militia remained in place well into the 18th century. The Susquehannock war with the Seneca spilled over into Maryland with several colonists killed and war declared on the Seneca in June 1664.
By 1674 Maryland’s position with respect to the Susquehannocks had changed and peace was made with the Seneca, recognizing their victory over the Susquehannock, causing a break down in relations with the Susquehannocks. In 1675 an expedition consisting of a regiment of horse, with five troops of fifty men each was raised to attack the Susquehannock Fort. The expedition was commanded by MAJ Thomas Truman. The expedition was conducted in coordination with a force from Virginia commanded by COL John Washington. Once at the fort on 26 Sep 1675, five Susquehannock leaders left the fort to meet with the Marylanders and Virginians. When a detachment of rangers under CPT John Allen arrived at the fort with the bodies of dead settlers, the Susquehannock leaders were executed. The Maryland and Virginia forces then besieged the fort of six weeks until the Susquehannock completely evacuated of the fort at night killing several sentries as they left. MAJ Truman was brought up on charges of murder but the lower house of the colonial assembly refused to permit his execution and after a brief time in jail he was released. Thomas Notley was made Governor in 1676.
In Sept 1676 a rebellion occurred in Calvert County, with sixty men refusing orders to disarm and disband until confronted by MAJ Henry Jowles and a company of militia. The reason for the rebellion is unknown but can be suggested by ongoing complaints against the proprietary government about excessive taxation, advancement of Catholicism, Catholic favoritism, and a groundless accusation that Lord Baltimore was conspiring with French and Indians to kill Protestants. That same year, an expedition was raised to attack the Nanticokes in to be commanded by COL William Coleborne, but there is no record of the outcome of this expedition. Charles Calvert became governor in 1679.
In 1681, the same concerns and groundless rumors that caused a revolt in 1676 with the added twist of an Irish army being invited to Maryland to wipe out the Protestants led to the arrest of two prominent member of the colony spreading the rumors, former Governor Josias Fendall and CPT John Coode. Their arrest did nothing to stop the rumors and CPT George Godfrey organized a militia company in Charles County to march to St Mary’s to free them. Gofrey’s attempt failed and he was charged with banishment. Fendall was banished as well and Coode was freed with a warning. In 1684 a council of deputy governors ruled Maryland on behalf of the minor child Benedict Calvert until 1689.
In November of 1688 William of Orange landed in England beginning a period of revolution, instability, uncertainty and war in Britain and the colonies. The colonies were waiting for a decree from the new monarchs, William and Mary in the spring of 1689 and this decree was lost on its way to Maryland. By April 1689 an “Association in arms for the defense of the Protestant Religion and for asserting the rights of King William and Queen Mary to the province of Maryland “ was formed. In July a seven hundred man army under Captain John Coode, Colonel Henry Jowles and Major John Campbell claiming it was necessary to overthrow the proprietary government because “the Papists had invited the Northern Indians to come down and cut off the Protestants” in August, a complete fabrication. Colonel William Digges attempted to defend the State House at St Mary’s City with one hundred men and surrendered after a short fire fight. Colonel Henry Darnel and Major Nicholas Sewall tried to put together a relief force but were only able to assemble a force of about one hundred and fifty men and were unable to challenge Coode’s force. Darnell and Sewell withdrew to Mattapnay Sewall and surrendered on 1 August 1689. Coode and the “Associators” ruled Maryland until 1692.
In 1690 a company under CPT Gabriel Towson led a company raised to strengthen Albany, NY during King William’s War from 1690 to 1697. In 1692 Sir Lionel Copely arrived as the first Royal Governor of Maryland. His first assembly established the Church of England as the church of the colony. Copley died in 1692 and Sir Thomas Lawrence and Sir Edmund Andros briefly followed as Governors.
In 1693 three forts were constructed to defend the western frontier of the colony from Native Americans, one in Charles County, one in Anne Arundel County and another near the falls of the Patapsco River. CPT John Addison and COL Nicholas Greenberry constructed the forts with pressed labor and each of the forts were garrisoned by nine militiamen and four Native Americans.
In July 1694 Francis Nicholson became Governor of Maryland and moved the capital from St Mary’s City to Ann-Arundel Town, now Annapolis in 1695. He was succeeded by Nathaniel Blackiston until 1704. John Seymour became Governor in 1704 until 1709.
In 1705 Richard Clarke was accused of leading an attempted uprising of indentured servants, Indians and slaves which was put down with the ringleaders disappearing after seizing a ship.
Identified Military Units and Commanders
St. Mary’s County (established 1634)
1634-47 LTG Leonard Calvert, Maryland Militia Commander
1642 St Mary’s and Kent Counties, CPT William Brainthwaite’s Militia Company
1643 CPT Thomas Cornwallis’ expedition
1645 CPT William Stone’s Militia Company
1646 CPT Nathaniel Pope’s Expedition against Kent Island
1646-1652 CPT John Price, commander of Ft Inigoe
1647 Captain General Thomas Green, Commander Maryland Militia
1647 COL John Price’s expedition against the Nanticoke and Wickomick
1647-50 COL John Price, Militia Commander
1650 COL Thomas Dent, Militia Commander
1652-75 CPT Thomas Cornwallis’ Militia Company
1654-57 CPT Josais Fendall’s Militia Company
1654-55 CPT Richard Hodskeys’ Militia Company
1654-55 CPT John Sly’s Militia Company
1655 COL William Stone, Proprietary Force Commander
1655 CPT William Evans’ Militia Company
1655 CPT Nicholas Gwither’s Militia Company
1658 Major General Edward Gibbon, Maryland Militia Commander
1658-59 COL William Evans, Militia Commander
1658-65 CPT George Reed’s Militia Company
1660-61 LTG Phillip Calvert, Commander of the Maryland Militia
1661 CPT Odber’s Company at Susquehannock Fort (St Mary’s, Kent, Charles, Calvert,
1661-75 LTG Charles Calvert, Commander of the Maryland Militia
1661 CPT John Collier’s Militia Company
1664 CPT Luke Gardiner’s Militia Company
1674 COL John Jarboe, Militia Commander
1675 CPT Gerrard Sly’s Ranger’s
1676-79 CPT Henry Jowles’ Militia Company
1675 MAJ Thomas Truman’s Expedition against the Susquehannocks (St Mary’s and
1676 CPT John Pierce, Captain of the Guard at Matapenny Sewall, Governor’s residence
and arsenal, 1666-1684
1676-1679 CPT John Coode’s Militia Company
1677-78 COL John Douglas, Militia Commander (St. Mary’s and Charles)
1678-81 COL William Calvert, Militia Foot Commander
1678-82 CPT Justinian Gerard’s Militia Company
1679-88 St. Mary’s Guard
1680 CPT William Diggs’ Militia Company
1689-90 COL John Coode, Commander of Maryland
1689 CPT Edward Greenhald’s Company of Militia Horse
1689 CPT John Payne’s Company of Militia Foot
1694 CPT Edward Greenhald’s Company of Militia Foot
1694-1705 COL Sir Thomas Lawrence’s Militia Regiment of Foot (St., Mary’s and Ann
1695 COL Henry Jowles, Militia Commander
Kent County (established 1642)
1642-44 CPT Giles Brent, Kent Island Military Commander
1645-1660 CPT Robert Vaughn, Kent Island Military Commander
1648 CPT Peter Knight’s Company (in rebellion against Proprietary)
1652-58 COL Phillip Conner, Military Commander
1652-54 CPT William Fuller’s expedition to the Eastern Shore
1658-61 CPT Thomas Bradnox’s Militia Company on Kent Island
1662 CPT William Leed’s Militia Company
1668-69 CPT John Vicaris, Military Commander
1677 CPT Philemon Lloyd’s Militia Troop of Horse
1681 CPT William Lawrence’s Militia Company
1681 COL Philemon Lloyd, Commander of Militia Horse (Kent, Talbot and Cecil)
1687-1694 COL Henry Coursey, Militia Commander
1689 CPT Edward, Sweatnams’ Militia Company
1689 CPT Cornelius Comegys’ Militia Company
1689 CPT John Hynson’s Militia Company
1689 CPT William Pierce’s Militia Company of Foot
1690 CPT John Derricuts’ Militia Company
1692 CPT John Hawkins’ Militia Company
1694-1701 COL Codd St. Leger, Militia Commander
1694-96 CPT John Coppedges’ Militia Company of Foot
1695 COL John Hynson, Militia Commander
Anne Arundel County (established 1650)
1650-52 COL Edward Lloyd, Militia Commander
1655 COL Edward Lloyd, Commander Puritan Forces
1655-1661 CPT John Norwood’s Militia Company
1654-58 CPT Richard Ewen’s Militia Company
1655 CPT William Fuller’s Militia Company (Battle of the Severn 170 men)
1657-58 CPT Thomas Howell’s Militia Company
1661-64 CPT William Burges’ South River Rangers
1661 CPT John Norwood’s Militia Company
1665-81 COL William Burgess, Militia Commander
1669 CPT Paul Marsh’s Militia Company of Foot
1678 CPT Nicholas Greenberry’s Militia Company of Foot
1678-81 CPT Nicholas Gassaway’s Militia Company
1687-88 MAJ Edward Dorsey, Militia Commander
1689 CPT Henry Ridgely’s Militia Company of Foot
1691-94 CPT John Hammond’s Militia Troop of Horse
1692-94 COL Nicholas Greenberry, Commander of Militia Horse
1692 CPT James Maxwell’s Rangers
1693 Captain General Nicholas Greenbury, Commander Maryland Militia
1694 COL Nicholas Greenberry’s Rangers (Ann Arundel and Baltimore)
1695-99 COL Henry Ridgely, Militia Commander
1694 CPT James Maxwell’s Militia Company
1694 CPT Robert Lockwood’s Militia Troop of Horse
1701-03 CPT Lawrence Draper’s Militia Company
1707 Major General John Hammond, Militia Commander
Patuxent, later Calvert County (established 1654)
1655 CPT John Smith, Militia Commander
1655 CPT John Smith’s Militia Company
1655 CPT Peter Johnson’s Militia Company
1656 CPT Woodman Stockley
1656 CPT Phillip Morgan’s Militia Company
1658 CPT John Odbur’s Militia Company
1664-70 CPT Sampson Waring’s Militia Company
1665-76 CPT John Cobreath’s Militia Company
1668-81 CPT Ninian Beal and the Calvert County Rangers
1689 CPT Richard Ladd’s Militia Company
1689 CPT Henry Mitchell’s Militia Company of Foot
1689 CPT Richard Smith’s Militia Company of Foot
1689 CPT Thomas Tasker’s Militia Company of Foot
1689-98 CPT /MAJ/COL Ninian Beal’ Rangers
1689-94 CPT John Bigger’s Rangers
1692 CPT Richard Brightwell’s Rangers
1694 CPT John Bigger’s Militia Company
1694-98 COL Ninian Beal, Militia Commander
1694 COL Henry Jowles, Militia Commander
Charles County (established 1658)
1658-75 CPT Thomas Corwallis’ Militia Company
1658 CPT Gerard Fowke’s Militia Company
1658-60 CPT John Jenkin’s Militia Company
1658 CPT Nicholas Gwither’s Militia Company
1659-61 CPT James Langworth’s Militia Company
1666 CPT William Boreman’s Militia Company
1675-76 CPT John Douglas’ Rangers
1676-80 CPT John Wheeler’s Militia Company
1681-83 COL William Chandler, Commander of Militia Foot
1681 COL Henry Darnall Commander of Militia Horse
1682-89 CPT Humphrey Warren’s Militia Company
1689-94 CPT John Coats’ Militia Company of Horse
1689-94 CPT John Addison’s Militia Company of Horse
1694-95 CPT William Dent’s Militia Company
1694-95 COL Humphrey Warren, Commander of Militia Foot Troops
1695-97 COL John Coats, Militia Commander
1706 CPT Philip Lynes’ Rangers
Baltimore County (established 1659)
1664 COL Lewis Stockett, Militia Commander
1678 CPT Thomas Long’s Militia Company of Foot
1678 COL George Wells, Commander of Militia Foot
1686-88 COL George Wells, Militia Commander
1689 CPT Thomas Richardson’s Militia Troop of Horse
1689 CPT Henry Johnson’s Militia Company
1692 CPT Thomas Richardson’s Rangers
1694-98 CPT John Oldton’s Rangers
1694-96 CPT Thomas Hammond’s Militia Troop of Horse
1695-1714 CPT John Dorsey’s Militia Company
1695- 1701 COL Thomas Richardson’s Rangers
1697-99 CPT Richard Owing’s Rangers
1689-90 CPT John Thomas’ Militia Company
1695-01 COL John Thomas, Militia Commander
1701-05 COL Edward Dorsey, Militia Commander
1704 CPT Lawrence Draper’s Militia Company
Talbot County (established 1661)
1677 CPT Davis Hopkin’s Militia Company of Foot
1689 CPT James Murphy’s Militia Company of Foot
1689-96 CPT John Stanley’s Militia Company of Foot
1698-1707 Major General Edward Lloyd Militia Commander
1699 CPT Nicholas Lowe’s Militia Company
Somerset County (established 1666)
1669-73 CPT William Coleborne’s Militia Company of Horse
1672 CPT Thomas Jones’ Militia Company
1678-89 COL William Coleborne, Militia Commander
1681-86 COL William Stephens, Commander of Militia Horse
1683 -94 CPT William Coleborne’s Militia Company
1687 COL William Stephens, Militia Commander
1689 CPT Charles Ratcliffe’s Militia Company
1689 CPT Robert King’s Militia Company
1689-94 CPT William Whittington’s Militia Company of Foot
1694-1703 CPT Arnold Elzeys’ Militia Company of Foot
1694 CPT Benjamin Sauser’s Militia Company of Foot
1694 CPT Charles Ratcliffe’s Militia Troop of Horse
1697-1709 CPT Thomas Dixon’s Militia Company
Dorchester County (established 1668)
1676-1685 CPT Henry Tripp’s Militia Company of Foot
1678-80 CPT Thomas Taylor’s Militia Company of Foot
1681-85 CPT Thomas Taylor’s Rangers
1687-1703 MAJ Thomas Taylor, Militia Commander
1689-93 CPT Thomas Ennal’s Militia Company of Foot
1689 CPT John MacKeele’s Militia Company of Foot
Cecil County (established 1672)
1683 CPT James Frisby’s Militia Company
1684-86 CPT Philimon Murray, Commander of the garrison of Christina Fort
1703 COL William Harris, Militia Commander
Prince George’s County (established 1694)
1689 and 1698 MAJ Ninian Beal and 10 -12 rangers
1694 COL John Addison’s Rangers
1694- 97 COL John Addison, Militia Commander
1699-1700 COL Ninian Beal, Militia Commander
Bozman, John “The History of Maryland,” Vol. II, Lucas & Deaver, Baltimore, 1837
Carr, Lois Green and Jordan, David William, “Maryland's Revolution of Government, 1689-1692.” Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1974
Carr, Lois Green, “Margaret Brent, A Brief History,”
Eshleman, Frank, “Lancaster County Indians,” Lancaster, PA , 1908
Graham, Michael, “Popish Plots: Protestant Fears in Early Colonial Maryland, 1676-1689,” The Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 79, No. 2, April 1993, pp. 197-216
Mereness, Newton, “Maryland As A Proprietary Province,” MacMillan Company, London, 1901
Pede, Henry, “Colonial Maryland Soldiers and Sailors, 1634-1734,” Heritage Books, Westminster, MD, 2008
Pincus, Steve, ”1688, The First Modern Revolution,” Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 2009
Riordan, Timothy, “The Plundering Time, Maryland and the English Civil War,” Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, 2004
Schaun, George and Virginia, “Everyday Life in Colonial Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania & Virginia” 1996