Timeline of Maryland Forces 1754-1764





"We are assured, that his Excellency our governor has ordered two companies of men be raised in this province, who are to receive eight Pence a day, each private soldier, from the time of enlisting, and cloaths, arms, and accoutrements, upon their marching to join the troops under command under Colonel Innes; after which time they will be also supplied with provisions at free cost”

- Maryland Gazette, 8 August 1754

20 August 1754 Governor Dinwiddie promises land in the Ohio country to those
Virginians enlisting and extends the incentive to Marylanders who enter Maryland service.

September 1754 50-60 men raised for CPT Dagworthy’s Company and marched to Ft. Mount Pleasant/Cumberland.

“Last Monday morning , a part of the soldiers raised in the province to go against the French on the Ohio marched out of town for Frederick County, under command of Lieutenant John Forty, and we hear the remainder will march the beginning of next week”

- Maryland Gazette 26 September 1754


September 1754- October 1754 Ft Mount Pleasant (later Ft Cumberland) is built at Wills Creek

October 1757 COL James Innes of North Carolina is made “Camp Master General of Ft Cumberland. Garrison consists of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina men.

“Last Monday a second Party of Capt. Dagworthy’s Company of soldiers march’d out of town, under the command of Lieutenant John Bacon, and are to join the others in Frederick County.”

- Maryland Gazette 3 October 1754


November 1754 disposition of Maryland forces:

CPT Dagworthy’s Company with 50 men
Cresaps “Fort” with 60 militia


8 December 1754 CPT Dagworthy at Ft Cumberland with 47 men

18 May 1755 GEN Braddock at Ft. Cumberland:

“Each regt, Independent Compys &c in the making up of their cartridges are allowed 36 rounds with ball to a pound of powder and for field days and exercises are allowed 46 (with or without ball) to a pound of powder. Six women per company are allowed each of the two regts:& the Independent Companies, 4 women to each of the Company of Carpenters Virginian & Maryland Rangers, 5 women to the artillery, 2 women to the detachment of seamen & 2 women to the troop of light horse.”


June 1755 Braddocks Expedition

CPT Dagworthy’s Maryland Provincial Rangers 3 Officers/49 men


September 1755 CPT Dagworthy’s Company garrisons Ft Cumberland with 30 men

“You are hereby directed and required to send from the militia under your command to Frederick Town a party of men consisting of any number more than twenty nine under the command of one Subaltern officer unless a Captain shall voluntarily offer his service and in such case you are to appoint one Subaltern under him……Every person should take at least one blanket with him and cloaths enough to serve him for a month from his arrival from his arrival in the frontiers together with provisions for himself till he shall reach Frederick Town where he will be supplied out of a magazine. Those who have arms & ammunition wou’d do well in taking both with them and those who want shall be supplied at Frederick Town.”

- Governor Sharpe to Militia in eight counties, September 1755


8 December 1755 CPT Dagworthy’s Company at Ft Cumberland with 47 men

“Sir: When I was down, the Committee among other things resolved, that the Maryland and Carolina Companies should not be supported with our Provisions. This resolve (I think) met with your approbation; upon which I wrote to Colonel Stephen, desiring him to acquaint Captain Dagworthy thereof, who paid slight regard to it, saying it was in the King's garison, and all the troops had an equal right to draw provisions with us, by his order, (as commanding officer,) and that we, after it was put there, had no Power to remove it without his leave. I should, therefore, be glad not care to act without instructions, lest it should appear to proceed from pique and resentment at having the command disputed. This is one among the numberless Inconveniences of having the Fort in Maryland. Captain Dagworthy, I dare venture to affirm, is encouraged to say this by Governor Sharpe, who we know has wrote to him to keep the command. This Captain Dagworthy acquainted Colonel Stephen of himself. As I have not yet heard how General Shirley has answered your Honor's request, I fear the success, especially as it is next to an impossibility (as Governor Sharpe has been there to plead Captain Dagworthy's cause) by writing to make the General acquainted with the Nature of the Dispute. The Officers have drawn up a memorial to be presented to the General, and, that it may be properly strengthened, they humbly beg your solicitation to have us (as we have certain advices that it is in his power) put upon the Establishment. This would at once put an End to Contention, which is the Root of Evil, and destructive to the best of Operations; and turn all our Movements into a free, easy Channel.”
- COL Washington to GOV Dinwiddie at Alexandria, 14 January, 1756

"Governor Dinwiddie, at the instance of Colonel Washington, having referred to me concerning the right of command between him and Captain Dagworthy, and desiring that I should determine it, I do therefore give it as my opinion, that Captain Dagworthy, who now acts under a commission from the governor of Maryland, and where there are no regular troops joined, can only take rank as a provincial captain, and of course is under the command of all provincial field-officers; and, in case it should happen, that Colonel Washington and Captain Dag'worthy should join at Fort Cumberland, it is my order that Colonel Washington shall take the command.”
- GEN Shirley, at Boston 5 March 1754

“ In a letter from Fort Cumberland, dated the fifteenth instant, there is advice, that two considerable bodies of French Indians have been lately down there, and had picked up several of the men belonging to the fort; but that the Commanding Officer there had detached parties immediately in pursuit of them, which obliged them to retreat precipitately, and thereby prevented their getting among the inhabitants.”

- Maryland Gazette, 11 March 1756


“Major Prather, who has the Governors Commission to command all the forces on the frontier (except those at Fort Cumberland) has at this time under his Command about 150 men; and Captain Alexander Beall, who was out with a company of volunteers in November last, has orders to raise as many men as he can, not to exceed 200, and join Major Prather with all possible expedition.”

- Maryland Gazette, 11 March 1756


22 March 1756 Maryland funds appropriated for construction of Ft. Frederick

“By a deposition of James Tucker, this day brought to town by an express, we have the following account, viz, that he was at Capt. Waggoner’s fort in Virginia, and heard that some of Capt. Waggoner’s Company say, that Mr. John Bacon, Lieutenant of Capt. Dagworthy’s Company, was kill’d and scalped by the Indians 4 or 5 miles from Cumberland fort; and also, that two men in company with Lieutenant Bacon, were wounded, but made their escape to the fort”

- Maryland Gazette 8 April 1756


23 April 1756 Cresap’s Ambush

“Last Saturday there came to Baltimore –Town from Conococheague, at the foot of the North Mountain, forty-one persons, viz. 6 men, 5 women, and 30 children, with some of their cattle, to avoid the fury of the enemy, and settle at Mr. Lawson’s works. One of the men had just removed his family to a hill within sight of his house, when Indians came and burnt his houses, destroy’d his plantation and kill’d his cattle. He says that Thomas and Danile Cresap (sons of Col. Cresap) went out about three weeks since, with sixty people , dressed and painted like Indians, to kill the women and children in the Indian towns, and scalp them, while their warriors are committing like destruction on our frontier”

- Maryland Gazette, 29 April 1756


“We mentioned in our last that Mr. Thomas Cresap, junr., and his brother with a party of men painted and dress’d like Indians, were gone out in pursuit of the enemy: since which we are now informed by Capt. Dagworthy (who came to town yesterday from Fort Cumberland), that on the 23d of April, as Mr. Cresap and his party lay in ambush near the Little-Meadows, they saw a party of Indians coming by them; but one of the party firing too soon, alarm’d them, and they fled as fast as possible into thickets, leaving their horses and baggage, which out people took and brought off with them; among their baggage one scalp was found. One of the Indians taking a different course from the rest; Mr. Cresap, and two others after him near a mile, when the Indians finding that Mr. Cresap gain’d on him and would overtake him, he dodged behind a large tree and Mr. Cresap stopp’d behind one smaller; and they fired at one another so near together that it could not be distinguish’d which fired first. Mr. Cresap was shot with large shot in the breast, and the others of his party coming up, he told them, not to mind him, he was a dead man, but to pursue the enemy; and then dropped down dead. The Indian was shot thro’ the right breast , but was not dead when they came up to him, and so they dispatch’d him with a tomahawk and scalp’d him. Mr. Cresap’s body they buried as privately as they could. He was a young widower, and has left two little children and his death is lamented by all who knew him.”

- Maryland Gazette, 6 May 1756


May 1756 Two Companies raised to serve until Feb 1757:

CPT Dagworthy’s (100 men)
CPT Alexander Beall’s (100 men)


“G.R. Our will and pleasure is, that you attend the Proclamation of our Declaration of War against France, that is to be made tomorrow, being Tuesday the eighteenth instant, between the hours of nine and twelve, in the morning, in the usual places, and with the solemnities customary on the like occasion; and for so doing, this shall be your Warrant."

- Given at our Court at Kensington, the 17th of May 1756, in the 29th year of Our Reign. By His Majesties Command, H. FOX


20 May 1756 COL Thomas Cresap’s “red caps’ (100 men) ambush French/Indian raiding party.

30 Jun 1756 COL Thomas Cresap’s “red caps’ (100 men) ambush French/Indian raiding party.

We hear from the mouth of the Conococheague, that four Indians, dressed in red caps and much like Col. Cresap’s men, came down among the inhabitants there, and killed and scalped two people, and then made off. A party of 46 men were immediately sent out after them; but they have not yet been able to meet with them.”

- 29 July 1756 Maryland Gazette


2 August 1756 Ft Frederick Garrison:

CPT Dagworthy’s Company (100 men)
CPT Alexander Beall’s Company (100 men)


“Deserted from the Maryland Forces at Fort-Frederick, William Withers, alias, Delaney, and John Hopkins. Withers, an Irishman, aged about 34 years, a straight fellow, bout 5 feet 11 inches high, has dark brown hair, full grey eyes, much marked on the face by small pox, and speaks plain English; had on when he went away, an old blue coat, an old felt hat, a coarse white linen shirt, and strong shoes not much worn; he carried off with him a gun that appeared on the outside of the barrel like a rifle but was smooth bored. John Hawkins, an Englishman, aged about 29 years, a well set fellow, about 5 feet 6 inches high, has black hair, and a fresh complexion: he lived some time as a servant with the widow Swaford betwixt the North and South Mountain, in Frederick County Maryland. He had on when he went away, an old felt hat, a white coarse cloth coat, dirty leather breeches, coarse white worsted stockings, and strong shoes not much worn; he carried off with him a carbine and rifle. Whoever apprehends either of the said deserters will be entitled to twenty Shillings reward; and any person who may conceal or entertain them, or purchase their arms, will be punished as the Law directs. John Dagworthy.”

- 5 August 1756 Maryland Gazette


“The views of the enemy are designed against the lower inhabitants. They have laid Maryland and Pennsylvania waste, as low as Carlisle, the inhabitants of which place we are told are flying with the utmost consternation. They have made an attempt on the Virginia side, killed one and captivated another on the Conogochieg road, four miles hitherwards, but retreated back, for how long a time.”


- COL Washington to LTC Adam Stephen at Winchester, 5 August, 1756


30 August 1756 2 militia companies sent to Ft Frederick for 1 month

"The frontiers of Maryland are abandoned for many miles below the Blue Ridge, as low as Frederick-Town, thro' which place I am credibly informed no less than 350 wagons, transporting the affrighted families, passed in the space of three days. By which means, Potomack River, which is now our frontier, is deserted on the Maryland side 40 miles below Conocgch. and as much in a parellel below Winchester, and is now more than any the theater of bloodshed and cruelty."

- COL Washington to GOV Dinwiddie, at Winchester, 8 September, 1756


October 1756 3rd company of 100 men added to serve to Apr 1757

February 1757 2 companies extended to Apr 1757

Deserted from Fort Frederick, on the 22nd of February, in the evening, the two following persons, viz., Phillip Connelly, aged 28 years, 5 feet 10 inches high, of a brown complexion, and was born in St Mary’s County, Maryland. He had on when he went away, a red coat and breeches (the sleeves of his coat turn’d up with black) and white metal buttons, a new felt hat, and a new white shirt, and is supposed to have carried another with him. Aaron Halsworth, aged 20 years, 5 feet 3 inches and ½ high, of a brown complexion, a Cutler by trade, was born in England, and served his time at Mr. Snowden’s iron works: his dress is the same with Connelly’s. They have carried their arms with them. Whoever will take up the said deserters, and bring them to Fort Frederick, or secure them so that they may be brought to the fort shall have a pistole reward for each man paid by Joshua Beall.

10 March 1757, Maryland Gazette

April 1757 CPT Alexander Beal’s Company garrison Ft Frederick.

1 May 1757 Virginia Regiment departs Ft Cumberland and turns it over to Maryland
                         Forces

May 1757 Maryland Forces, commanded by CPT Dagworthy, composed of the
following:

CPT John Dagworthy
CPT Alexander Beall
CPT Joshua Beall
CPT Francis Ware
CPT Richard Pearis (Cherokee and Catawba Indians)


"Annapolis May 19. By an Act of Assembly of this province, which was made in October last, and still is in full force, any inhabitant of this Province, or any Indian in our alliance, that shall kill an enemy Indian, either within or out of the Province, is entitled to the sum of fifty pounds on producing the scalp of such enemy Indian to a magistrate: and any inhabitant of either of the neighboring Colonies, is, on his producing such Indian’s scalp, and satisfy a Magistrate that he was really killed within this Province entitled to the same reward.”


- Maryland Gazette, 19 May 1757


"May 17, 1757 Deserted from a recruiting party of the Maryland Forces, under the command of Robert Hanson, at Port-Tobacco, in Charles County, Oswald Addams, but enlisted by the name of William Addams; he is about 5 feet 81/2 inches high, of a fair complexion, about 32 years of age and thin visaged. Had on a dark cloth coat trimm’d with brass buttons, a country cloth waistcoat, brown Holland breeches, and a brown cut wig. Whoever apprehends the said deserter, and confines him in any Gaol, shall have forty shillings reward; or if brought to Port-Tobacco, two pistols paid by Robert Hanson.”


- Maryland Gazette, 2 June 1757


"Upper Marlborough, June 9, 1757. Deserted from a Recruiting Party of the Maryland Forces, commanded by Lieutenant Duncan MacRae, Joseph Mchugh, who was born in the lower part of Prince-George’s County, near Patuxent; he is about 25 years of age, 5 feet, 9 inches high of a dark complexion, has black eyes, and his hair was black, but was very lately cut off. Whoever will apprehend and have the said deserter secured in any Gaol within this Province, or delivered to any Officer of the aforesaid Forces, shall have two pistols reward, paid by Captain Pearis, or Lieutenant MacRae.”

- Maryland Gazette, 23 June 1757


"Deserted from Francis Ware’s Company, the 14th of this instant June, on his march to Fort-Frederick, Patrick Grame, a Scotchman, aged 25 years, 5 feet 4 ½ inches high, of a brown complexion, has dark eyes, and black hair, middling long, has a down look, and is mark’d with the small-pox; had on when he went away, a jacket made of a Dutch blanket, grey country-made stockings, and shoes about half worn. Whoever takes up the said deserter, and delivers him to any of the Recruiting-Officers in this Province, or contrives him to Fort-Frederick, shall have two pistoles reward paid by Francis Ware "

- Maryland Gazette, 23 June 1757


“In the letter which I addressed to you on the 26th of May I informed you that the Assembly of this Province had in compliance with the Earl of Loudoun’s requisition agreed to support five hundred men for the immediate defense of the Province and to act on any emergency in conjunction with such other forces as should be employed in these parts to annoy His Majesty’s enemies. Some of these men were by his Lordship’s Order marched to garrison Fort Cumberland while the rest were left at Fort Frederick to patrol on our frontiers at a small distance beyond the settlements, and by this disposition of them the inhabitants have been so effectually secured this summer from incursions of the enemy that we have not lost a single person, exclusive of soldiers and such as attend them. The money which had been appropriated for the support of these troops being now expended , I have convened the Assembly again and recommended it to them to grant further supplies for their support, but I am sorry to inform you that they have absolutely refused to provide for any men that rare or may be ordered to Fort Cumberland , and that they are also resolved to reduce the troops in the pay of this Province to three hundred, who shall they say on no account whatever be employed otherwise that in garrisoning Fort Frederick and patrolling just beyond our frontier settlements.”


- GOV Sharpe to Prime Minister Pitt, 22 October 1757


October 1757 Reduction to 3 companies assigned to garrison Ft. Frederick and patrolling the border

December 1757 CPT Alexander Beall’s Company (100 men) garrison at Ft Frederick and other companies (360 men) at Ft Cumberland or on ranging duty.

“They not only insisted on our troops being withdrawn from Fort Cumberland, but likewise that they should be forthwith reduced from 500 to 300 men & that none of such 300 should be subject on any account whatever to the Commands of the Earl of Loudoun or any other of His Majesty’s Generals

- GOV Sharpe to Prime Minister Pitt on the Colonial Assembly, 16 March 1758.


“The men that are in garrison at Fort Cumberland, being in number about 300, have continued to serve without pay since the 8th of October as well as those that are at Fort Frederick, but as it could not be expected that their Officers would be able to keep them together much longer I wrote to the Commander in Chief as well as COL Stanwix & desired that some other troops might be ordered to Fort Cumberland which I presume will be done as soon as the roads become practicable.”

- GOV Sharpe to Prime Minister Pitt, 16 March 1758


“Rather than let your troops be disbanded, I will take them into the pay of the Crown, upon the footing of Rangers.”

- GEN Forbes to GOV Sharpe, 2 May 1758


“I must likewise desire that you will order all your troops up to Fort Cumberland and make Colonel Washington’s people take up their post at Fort Frederick.”

- GEN Forbes to GOV Sharpe, 12 May 1758


“As soon as those of them that that are at Fort Frederick and on our frontiers receive orders to march westward which I expect they will in about three weeks, I shall proceed to that Fort with two companies of militia & use my best endeavors to protect our frontier inhabitants with them during the continuance of the expedition.”

- GOV Sharpe to Prime Minister Pitt, 18 May 1758


“I am extremely obliged to Capt Dagworthy & the officers at Fort Cumberland and am very sorry that their good endeavors to get intelligence has not met with the desired success.”

- GEN Forbes to GOV Sharpe, 25 May 1758


31 May 1758 CPT Pearis’ Company disbanded

9 June 1758 CPT Dagworthy and 150 men sent from Ft Frederick to garrison Ft. Cumberland. CPT Alexander Beall’s Company and volunteer militia garrison Ft Frederick

“As they are only 300 men, and have been used to the woods and the Indian manner of fighting, I thought it would be a great loss to allow them to disband themselves, upon the province refusing then their by past pay, or continuing the during the Campaign; so have therefore made them an offer to pay them from this time during the rest of the Campaign, and to solicit for their past pay.”

- GEN Forbes to William Pitt, 17 June, 1758


"Sir, Having considered what you told me concerning the situation of your Maryland Troops, and particularly about the distressed condition of the Officers and of Mr. Ross by whom to your forces have been victualled since the money which was granted by your assembly for their support was expended, and being very adverse to your troops being disbanded at this critical juncture when in all probability I shall have great occasion for their service, I am induced to advance a sum of money towards relieving those Gentlemen in some measure from the difficulties wherein they are involved by the late extraordinary conduct of your Assembly, and to encourage your Troops to keep together during the Campaign."

- General Forbes to Governor Sharpe, 20 July 1758



August 26 – 17 Sep 1758 Maryland forces rendezvous at Ft. Bedford for Forbes
                                                   Expedition

LTC Dagworthy’s Company
CPT Alexander Beall’s Company
CPT Joshua Beall’s Company
CPT Francis Ware’s Company
(16 Officers/270 men)


“I have told the General that I am afraid no more of the militia would be prevailed on to come thus far if I was to attempt to carry ‘em to Fort Cumberland, bit I am endeavoring to get 200 or 250 Volunteers to accompany me to Fort Cumberland & to stay there till the affair is decided.

Beside the Maryland Troops as we call them which consist of 320 men I have prevailed on a Company of 40 Volunteers all good marksmen & used to the woods to join the army, they are commanded by a Gentleman that has served upward of two years as a Lieutenant in our provincials.”

- GOV Sharpe to Prime Minister Pitt, 27 August 1758


“I have wrote to Colo Bouquet of your kind agreement of garrisoning Fort Cumberland for the first month of my absence, and that 250 of your men would be there by the 10th or 12th instant, ordering the Commissary to furnish them with provisions and a gill of spirits each day during their stay in that service.”

- GEN Forbes to GOV Sharpe, 3 September 1758


‘The Governor of Maryland I am greatly obliged to, having personally acted with the greatest zeal for the Service, first by sending 50 volunteers all good woods men to join me, and now by marching 200 of his militia (I believe contrary to his Assembly’s inclination) to garrison Fort Cumberland for one month or until the 12th of October.”

- GEN Forbes to William Pitt, 6 September 1758


14 September 1758 Grants Raid

CPT Ware’s Company (95 men)
KIA LT Moore and 23 men


14 October 1758 Ligonier defense

CPT Evan Shelby’s Company of Maryland Volunteers (50 men)
2 KIA, 6 WIA and 12 missing


“The 60 Maryland volunteers went out and attacked them with vigor and courage”

- General Forbes to Richard Peters, 16 October 1758


12 November 1758 Ligonier skirmish

15-24 November 1758 move to Duquesne

“Sir, I have the pleasure and honour of acquainting you with the signal success of His Majesty’s Troops over all his enemies on the Ohio, by having obliged them to burn and abandon their fort Du Quesne which they effectuated upon the 24th instant.”

- General Forbes to Governor Denny, 26 November 1758


December 1758- April 1759 2 Companies garrison Ft Frederick

30 December 1758 CPT Alexander Beall’s Company disbanded

CPT Joshua Beall’s Company disbanded
CPT Francis Ware’s Company disbanded


July 1763 Bouquet’s Expedition to relieve Ft. Pitt
CPT Lemuel Barret’s Maryland ranger detachment (30 men)

5 August 1763 Battle of Bushy Run
CPT Lemuel Barret’s Maryland ranger detachment (30 men)

August-November 1764 Bouquets Expedition to the Ohio

CPT McClellan’s Company (43 men)
CPT Wolgamott’s Company (15 men)



Sources

Browne, William Hand, “Proceeds of the Council of Maryland, August 10, 1753-March 20, 1761, Letters to Governor Horatio Sharpe, 1754-1765”, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, 1911
Busch, Clarence M., “Report of the Commission to Locate the Site of the Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania,” Vol. 1, State Printer of Pennsylvania, 1896,
Dixon, David, “Never Come to Peace Again”, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, 2005

Edgar, Lady, “A Colonial Governor in Maryland, Horatio Sharpe and His Times 1753-1773,” Longman Green and Co., London, 1912

Hamilton, Stanislaus, ed., “Letters to Washington, Vol. II, 1756-1758”, Houghton, Mifflin and Co., Cambridge, 1899

Kimball, Gertrude, ed., “Correspondence of William Pitt, Vol. I., MacMillan Company, New York, 1906

Mc Ilwaine, H.R., ed., “Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1758-1761,” Richmond, VA, 1908

Mc Sherry, James, “History of Maryland”, Baltimore Book Club, Baltimore, 1904

Sparks, Jared, ed., “Writings of George Washington, Vol. II,” Little Brown, and Co., Boston 1855

Stewart, Irene, ed. “Letters of General John Forbes relating to the Expedition against Fort Duquesne in 1758,” Colonial Dames of America

The Pennsylvania-German Society, Proceedings and Addresses at Harrisburg, PA., October 20. 1911, Vol. XXII, 1913

The Official Records of Robert Dinwiddie, Vol.’s I and II, Virginia Historical Society Richmond, VA, 1884

Maryland Gazette ( MSA SC 2731) January 2, 1752 - October 19, 1758 http://www.msa.md.gov/megafile/msa/speccol/sc4800/sc4872/001279/html/index.html


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